click to show more information

click to hide/show information About this Show

Book TV

David Quammen Education. (2012) 'Spillover Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic.' New.

NETWORK

DURATION
01:00:00

RATING

SCANNED IN
San Francisco, CA, USA

SOURCE
Comcast Cable

TUNER
Channel 91 (627 MHz)

VIDEO CODEC
mpeg2video

AUDIO CODEC
ac3

PIXEL WIDTH
704

PIXEL HEIGHT
480

TOPIC FREQUENCY

Bangladesh 7, Southeastern Cameroon 4, Barbara 3, Malaysia 3, Peninsular Malaysia 3, Jenny 3, Us 2, David Quammen 2, Congo 2, Nathan Wolfe 2, Hanoi 2, Toronto 2, Singapore 2, Australia 2, U.s. 2, Beijing 2, Cameroon 2, Southern China 2, Kinshasa 1, Google 1,
Borrow a DVD
of this show
  CSPAN    Book TV    David Quammen  Education.  (2012) 'Spillover  
   Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic.' New.  

    November 3, 2012
    4:00 - 4:59pm EDT  

4:00pm
left to be discovered. in out there if you will go in search of it. with this book you can find the history of the state. ..
4:01pm
>> good evening. i'm barbara meade, one of the founders of politics & prose and sec this evening, we have c-span here. it's been like working back there? we have just one night she too asked questions. so if you need access to this and you're sitting over there, you can go around back. i want to welcome david quammen, who escon this evening to talk about his new book, "spillover." this is the first time david has been to politics & prose. he's written many, many books, including song of the dodo, which won the john burroughs medal potential history rating.
4:02pm
david holds honorary degrees from colorado college in montana state university where he served as though professor of western americans studies. he's also won the national magazine award three times for articles in a wide variety of magazines including "esquire," the atlantic and "rolling stone." the third of these awards, magazine awards was for the "national geographic" story called what starr went wrong. national agree -- "national geographic" kids in the -- which requires them to recommend egc three articles a year? three articles a year for "national geographic." he describes his sealed biology,
4:03pm
evolutionary biology, theoretical ecology and conservation. after this evening, i hope you will have as much appreciation for his physical strength and stamina as you have for his writing talents. in his field research ejects indiana jones through the resource that many of us would never want to step foot in. tonight you're going to learn a new word, at least i learned a new word. who knows this are infectious diseases that originate in animals and spread to humans. for those of you who read the hot dog, i can't believe those 20 years ago, 18 to be exact, you had a very early exposure to this frightening scenario that
4:04pm
david has been elaborated on a great deal in his book "spillover." this is a frightening, but critically important book for anyone interested in learning about the prospects of the world's next major pandemic. so here is david quammen to talk about his book. [applause] >> thank you. thank you thank you very much, barbara ntu mac all for being here politics & prose. as barbara said, i haven't been here before. i live a little bit too far away and don't publish books too often. it takes me about six or eight years to get one of these things done. i'm going to talk informally for 20 or 25 minutes.
4:05pm
as that which you said to be about right, barbara? about the book in the subject and to some extent about the writing of the book and you know this still better than i do ensure. then we'll hear from you. we'll have some conversation. as barbour explained, this is a book about scary, new emerging diseases and where they emerge from. where they emerge from generally is wildlife, from other species, nonhuman animals and in particular, nonhuman animals other than domesticated animals. if you've been following certain stories in the news over the last few months, you know that one point of entry into this subject is the daily newspaper itself. you've probably heard about hunter virus, killing three people who visited yosemite this
4:06pm
summer. people have been dying in north texas west nile fever. in the dallas area alone, the sifting people who died of west nile fever just since july. there has been an ebola outbreak again in central africa. the democratic republic of the congo has an ebola outbreak that killed three dozen people i think right now and it's still going on. there was another ebola outbreak across the border in uganda unrelated to the spillover that caused the outbreak in the democratic republic of the congo. that one has been ended. today things are happening. this is like a drumbeat of disease outbreaks and small crises. there's another on the arabian mint. there is a virus that emerged
4:07pm
that closely resembles the farsightedness, belongs to the same family. got really scared disease experts back in 2003. this new virus out of the arabian peninsula has only killed one person come up with another man the house will and britain, the scientists over the world are watching it carefully. why are they watching it carefully? thing of the next big one could look something like that. so as i say, there's a drumbeat of these things. those diseases that i've mentioned i'll have to things in common. they all commodified life. they emerge from nonhuman animals and among those that i mentioned, they're all caused by viruses and that's a particular profile of the scariest of the exemplars of this phenomenon. the scientists have a fancy name
4:08pm
for it. as barbara mentioned, they caught him on sections of passing to humans zoonoses, a virus or other forms of infectious bug. it could be about thierry, a protozoan that the creatures that cause malaria. it could be from this. it could be a warm. it could be something called it prion, which causes not cow disease. but usually it's a virus. viruses more than anything caused these. they passed in animals and humans. they don't always cause disease. sometimes they become harmless passengers in human. there's a virus i talk about in the book and i couldn't resist it because it got such a wonderfully gruesome name. and you have to find the light side of the subject where you
4:09pm
can find it. with all due respect to the people who suffer, the people who died and there's a lot of deaths in this book. it's strictly nonfiction. but still, i didn't want this book to be just a painful, gruesome duty, just an important scary but that i wanted to be in pleasurable reading experience, a page turner. i wanted to have moments of suspense, mystery and discovery, moments of sheer wisdom by some of the scientists studying this thing and yes, even some moment of humor. it's not a very funny book, but i hope that maybe the funnest book about ebola you ever read. [laughter] so as i said, some of these bugs
4:10pm
when they pass and humans are harmless, but often they are not. if the zoonosis passes to humans and causes mayhem there would call it a zoonotic disease in 60% of the infectious diseases of humans are zoonotic diseases and the other 40%, everything comes from somewhere. the other 40% are zoonotic origin in the broader sense. for instance, measles. measles is only if humans reported to come from? probably from a virus that causes the disease underpass and hoped. but it's been in human fun enough that it's evolved and become a doubt is specifically to humans. so it's different enough that it's considered and functions as a uniquely human virus.
4:11pm
but the 60% consider zoonotic are passing from animals to humans on either a continuing basis or have done it recently. that includes things like ebola, marburg, all of the influenza. west nile virus, the hunt to viruses, ejb. i talk to think about the ecological origins of the aids pandemic than we now know that the pandemics strain of hiv pastor of a single chimpanzee to a single human in a fairly small corner of southeastern cameroon in central africa. in 1908 or earlier, give or take a margin of error.
4:12pm
how do we know that? we know that because there's wonderful scientists who worked on the genetics, the molecular phylogenetic that are precursors to hiv nurses and chimps and monkeys in the genetic diversity of hav one, the pandemics stem of hav and scientists have managed to locate the lover event with a high degree of confidence. there's always a certain personality, but with a high degree of confidence they've located to southeast cameroon when chimpanzee, when human, presumably a human who killed the chimpanzee, cut himself on the hand handball pusher in the champ for food. and the very earliest part of the 20th century, sometime around or before 1908. michael moore be in beatrice
4:13pm
hahn of the scientists who with their colleagues in labs have done. so there are these diseases. the spillover. they are zoonotic. one other slightly technical term i want to familiarize you with his reservoir hosts. the reservoir hosts is a kind of animal which the bug, virus or whatever it is list indefinitely, permanently, inconspicuously without causing disease, without causing mayhem in the particular creature. why does that live there commence late? why does that live there nondestructively? probably because it's been in the species for millions of years in an accommodation has evolved. so virus in its west of our hosts replicates, but doesn't replicate cataclysmic way.
4:14pm
i replicate slowly and doesn't generally cause symptoms. so it's invisible. it hides in its reservoir host and then something happens. humans kill and eat the reservoir hosts, come in contact with it somehow. also a couple stories about ways this can happen. the reservoir host sheds virus in the virus gets into humans to become the zoonotic disease. one thing scientists do with the study this field can focus on different diseases, one of the first things they have to do is identify the rest of our hosts. a new disease foes of revelation it's killing pigs, then farmers and paid teachers and pork seller's purported to come from? the isolated by recent human victims and of the pigs.
4:15pm
same virus and the humans that is an pigs. this is a true case that happened in 1998. he named it after particular village in malaysia. then they went looking for the reservoir hosts. where was that? be found in large fruit bats of the genus are robust, the kind called flying foxes in asia. how did the spillover occur? did disease detectives finally tracked through the route of most likely spillover and here's what happened. people were coming down the forest and peninsular malaysia for development for agriculture for the tumor itself, cutting down the forests, just refer back habitat. the free press were displaced and had to look for food for nectar somewhere else. they started going closer to human settlements. if there were orchards, who
4:16pm
attracted to orchards comerford trees planted planted to humans. some planet by humans when farms. it was the second stream of income for farmers to bring great effect rescale farmers in northern and central peninsular malaysia. some farmers even planted mango trees another kind of fruit tree called the water apple very close to the open-air pigsty's comment in some cases shaving pigsty us. but that's come to the fruit trees planted over the skies. to eat the fruit, to the mango, drop the pulp into the pigsty, drop their, drop their, drop their virus into the pigsty. pigs pick it up, pigs get sick. they are costing embarking from one to the other.
4:17pm
the pigs are mostly not dying however. it becomes same tremendous agricultural problem demonstrates getting to humans and kills 109 people. causes the government of malaysia to call preventively 1.1 million pigs. they require the killing of pics from about that farms. some people were so scared by this disease they were at the they were abandoning the wrong farms, running away from them at farms. at one point, pigs are running this to the villages, in some cases abandoned villages of peninsular malaysia. it's a nightmare scenario, but it really happened. it's like something out of early cormac mccarthy or the book of exodus. infectious pigs running wild through the countryside, coffee and a virus. one fellow called it the one-mile barking cough because he could hear the sick pigs coming and you knew your farm
4:18pm
would be next. real story. the buttons of the latest as the disease in humans. so this is what the scientists do. they try and solve ecology and evolutionary biology of new diseases. what is the virus live? with the reservoir host? how did humans come in contact with the virus? were they doing in many cases with the ecological disruption that causes the contact that causes the lover? tickets into an intermediate animal. there's a case in australia were virus falls out of batson gets into horses. pigs are horses are referred to as the amplifier host. the virus reproduces abundantly than they showed lots of virus and gets into people. the case in hancock, the virus in australia is called hander after a suburb of brisbane,
4:19pm
which is erasing suburb. 1994 and one stabled the suburb, forces started to do. why are they dying? did they get poisonous feed? a veterinarian, horse trainer and stable hand try to save the horses. the stable form and got sick and went home. he thought he had a bad flu. the trainer got sick, had a very bad flu, went into the hospital and the veteran never got sick. the trainer died. the isolated virus from him and his organs and from the horses they found a new virus and named it after the suburb. then they get the disease detection. where did hundred virus come from? a fellow who was the chief detect it on this case doing his
4:20pm
thd on it. a veterinarian doing his phd in ecology. simple kangaroos, wombats, rats, mice and insects and things called porter bruce. he didn't find the virus. finally he sampled for rats and found the virus that it killed the horses and the trainers. as i kill very many people. it doesn't pass human to human, but it's a knock on the door, a reminder to us of where these things come from, how they emerge, whether spillover. the fact they are not all independent cases, but part of the pattern in the pattern reflects things we humans are doing on the planet and they get into humans and in some cases
4:21pm
because a local outbreak which is easily controlled or comes to an end on its own and in other cases because widespread suffering and death, hav being a case in point. i might stop there and see if people have questions. there's certainly a lot of other points i can touch on. but let me hear from you while and see what you would like to hear about. >> thanks, david. my name is rick. either toasty warm memory of swimming at ballston hot springs. i bet she'd been there, too. great place. the other is a question about viruses. i imagine it's a small number. does anyone know what percentage of viruses or pathogenic? >> know because nobody knows how many viruses they are.
4:22pm
we hear talk about god will send or other people trying to estimate how many living species there are planet earth. nobody knows how many species of vertebrate and invertebrate animals and plants and fungi they are with any precision. they make estimates ranging from 8 million to 30 million to 100 million species. the wood at the viruses and bacteria, nobody knows. [inaudible] >> the percentage of viruses that come out of animals pathogenic to humans may well be a small percentage. but the ones that are the exception are consequential. thanks for your question. >> hello, i enjoyed your book very much. i used it while i was a student in a class on biology. i do question about the study of
4:23pm
the genealogy of these diseases and i was curious if they had been using the human genome from the deep past commodious evidence of stuff that kills a lot of people, may be caused a bottleneck in the human population, but is now totally harmless because all the survivors have reproduced a generation that's all there is left. looking back in time for old mmx antichoice disease that way. >> i haven't seen much on that. one of the things that are interesting to me is tracy and the human genomes from them that caught archness retroviruses, which are hav is a retrovirus, particularly rna virus. they insert themselves permanently into the human
4:24pm
genome and we don't know exactly. maybe in some cases their functions. maybe they were what they used to call junk dna. there's a record in the human genome of past infections and they can be recognized as belonging to this virus family that virus family. so that is one thing that is there. in terms of the darwinian relationship between infections of the deep past in the human genome as it survived, very interesting. i can point you towards any particular worker of come pass. it's been done. it would have to be speculative to a certain degree. i'm sorry, i really can't tell you much more than not. >> hi, i have a question. so far we've heard you speak about different diseases that may cause death.
4:25pm
in the examples you gave us was dozens and hundreds, maybe thousands. but the reaction seemed like the government, the local government is overreacting when was trying to solve the situation, the problem. recently for example in texas there is a west nile virus detected and they started spraying the swampy areas with airplanes. my question is, are we doing more harm when we try to solve these issues, where there are other diseases that kill millions and millions that were not doing much. and here comes that these are such exotic diseases, when we hear about him, we get into shock and the reaction seems to be too much and may be harming the population. >> okay, figures or two questions. one is are we doing some things that cause more harm than good
4:26pm
and also, i resorted to taking these things set up a portion to the damage that they do? let me answer the second one first. i asked the same thing at the fellow who studies that meet the virus that i mentioned. it also occurs in bangladesh and has a different story in bangladesh because it's a muslim country and there are big pork farms. it doesn't pass the pigs as amplifiers in bangladesh. it is transmitted in two rod tate salm sat. because of its type that turns from a pot and leave the race in the pot some people drink and get the virus. so i talked to this fellow named steve lupi who was seconded there from the cdp cdc. there's hundreds and thousands of children in bangladesh dying
4:27pm
of bacterial and the serial number on your in bangladesh. he was based at a place called the cholera hospital. these diseases have been murderous in bangladesh for centuries. i asked him, why bother with neat outcome which comes a few dozen people each year? when you've got all these other diseases and heod me this is such a nasty disease and it has such potential that we can't ignore it simply because it's now small. it could be large. it's important has to take these other diseases, the more old-fashioned garden variety diseases like cholera, to take them serious he can keep in perspective, but it's important to be vigilant about new emerging diseases because after all, in 1881, we had a disease emerged called aids and it was one of these. the influences emerged anew each
4:28pm
year and influences are also capable of killing millions of people. that's the response i've heard from the experts about why they take these small, boutique diseases very seriously. you never know when one of those will become the next big one. in terms of the things we do to stop, contain or prevent the spillovers, in some cases, yes, we probably do more harm than good. sprain for inside, you know, depending what they spray which is an immediate candidate. you'd want to think about it because we've done so much, so much field damage over the decades trying to spray insecticide of existence and it just doesn't work. but there are cases when governments have taken very rigorous action and it has been very important and beneficial. for instance, when sars emerged,
4:29pm
was a very nasty virus passed by the respiratory route, killed 10% of the people it infected, spread quickly from hong kong to toronto, beijing, hanoi and singapore and infected a total of 8000 people, killed about 900, so better than 10%. and that was stopped. i heard somebody was saying, well, why does he take sars so seriously? stars did not burn out. sars was stopped at a very good, early diagnostic scientific work in the field and laboratory confirmed public health measures. containment of cases, isolation of cases, getting the right equipment, the right personal protection to the health care workers so that it didn't go further. one of the things i wonder about when i think about sars is if
4:30pm
the disease had emerged from a different place from southern china and hong kong and had gone to different cities in toronto, hanoi, beijing, singapore, make the whole history have been different? think about the cities. their command-and-control cities with a lot of strong government, good public health, apple facilities. if that disease emerged in the democratic republic of the congo , i love the congo, but has a lot of disadvantages and its disadvantages would have been probably very consequential to something like sars. >> hi connie spoken a lot about the wildlife aspect of the diseases. could you comment on the role of the livestock industry both in terms of the control and
4:31pm
prevention, but also the potential spread? >> factory farming, huge operations like farms in malaysia are part of what makes this problem more urgent and more dangerous. it's part of what makes us, the human population and our extension a forest of dry timber waiting for a spark. i mentioned in the leash of the fact that pigs are kept in huge outdoor compounds and they were arranged in a particular way with fruit trees, with part of the resulted in the spillover. the other thing is huge aggregations of wildlife also represent populations in which a book can evolve. the more abundantly virus
4:32pm
replicate, the more it's likely to mutate. and if it's an rna virus is supposed to accomplish helix dna virus, its mutation rate is particularly high. it will generate a lot of change, genetic variability as it replicates itself and of course it's great for darwinian natural selection. our viruses evolve more quickly than others and if you let them build up huge populations so that there many, many hosts infect even each contained many, many virus particles, can you provide abundant opportunities for evolution to function. for some particular stream to come out of there that's really transmissible among human and really virulent. so that represents the danger. so the mass production of livestock is part of it. that's only one aspect. there's more, but it's part of
4:33pm
what makes this particularly jeopardized by the situation. >> in your experience, following scientists to these areas are the high rate of costs over or spillover, to what extent have you noticed after to educate the local human population on how to modify their lifestyle or better to avoid the crossover spillover? >> there's certainly a first in bangladesh trying to educate people not to drink broad date palm sap that could potentially contain the virus. if you cook the stuff, you can kill the virus, but people like to drink it raw. it is sort of a seasonal treat. so there are things like that around the world.
4:34pm
in southern china, that cracked down on at least the above ground. there's a black market, but the big wet markets were all kinds of wildlife are sold life for food. there's passion in southern china, they call it wild flavor. it's sort eating wildlife. not because people need protein for subsistence, but because they have money and this is considered to be very robust and tasty food. one other thing on that in terms of education and local people. i mentioned the original spillover of hiv occurred in southeastern cameroon. i went there to retrace it was probably the reader to coming out of south eastern down a river system that took it along this on the river to the main strand congo and into the cities of brazzaville and leopoldville.
4:35pm
it's a city where it really started to have a higher rate of transmission. population is more concentrated. other factors that are described in my long chapter on hiv and it began to crackle in what became kinshasa to haiti and the world. so i went to southeastern cameroon to see what i can learn about the state of human relations that chimpanzees there now, whether people were still killing and eating chimpanzees and therefore exposing themselves to other spillovers of viruses that became hiv. it's true they are. i heard from sort of a confidential source about a practice, a book while a tribal initiation prank is, which
4:36pm
involves some ritual and include the eating of chimpanzee arms, so people are still exposing themselves to the viruses should pansies carry. and in one office, and office of the wildlife department in the southeastern corner of cameroon, i saw an aids awareness poster. this is getting back to your question. is in french, the colonial language must speak their come a poster in french trying to educate people about dangers of aids, what they call the red. what the poster said they are was not practice safe sex, don't exchange needles. now, with the aids awareness poster say in southeastern cameroon is tony keeps coming to
4:37pm
meet the chimps, don't you the guerrillas. that is aids education. >> thank you for being here. i am dr. sam hancock and with it transportation system supply chain, within 24 associate of viruses can be around the globe. so one of the most underfunded public programs is of course public health and this is something that a massive amount of money has been drawn on the over the last 50 years. so are there any best practices you've seen in the various countries that you've traveled to about how to build a public health system system so they can more easily identify some of these pathogens in viruses and then be able to respond to it, or is this something is always react to? >> thank you for your question. it's an interesting initiatives
4:38pm
official in going on. when that comes to mind is something called the global viral forecasting initiative, founded by a fellow named nathan wolfe, a youngish disease scientist based at stanford. he worked in cameroon for years doing fieldwork on the transmission of viruses from african wildlife into hunters. he is a big grant from google now and he's expanded his operation into a global, viral forecasting initiative, something called the global viral. when sample of the kind of work being done out there if he and his people send little kids out with the people, usually it's meant. the men who do the hunting from
4:39pm
these villages in central code. the docket of the false altar papers, simple filter papers of the kind used for medical purposes and probably not that different from what you filter your coffee with. ziploc bags and they pay the hunters to collect samples for them. eight.the blood on filter paper then placed in a ziploc bag now can be used as a sample from much of the laboratory, a week or two weeks later you can extract in it dma or rna to identify a virus. so that's what they do. the big advance over what used to have to be done, you'd have to capture an animal, take a blood sample and put it on the good-natured jan and russia back to the u.s. liquid nitrogen would freeze it. they have to be kept cool.
4:40pm
this can be done. i think they use pcr to allergy and a lot of other fancy laboratory things to extract not by virus. you can extract by virus. you can't grow it. you can extract dna and rna to identify what was there. that's what nathan wolfe and his people are doing. the idea to spot the next one and a very, very early phase, decades passed before he realized that hiv was in the human population. va just trying catch the next big one much earlier than that. >> how did these deadly animal viruses tend to revolve? do you think they will continue to evolve at the rate they have done in the recent experience of monitoring and trying to control
4:41pm
them? >> two things can happen. say you are a monkey living in central africa. they are tearing down your habitat. 1010 the monkey habitat. they're killing the monkey for food, building villages, settlements, timber can. so the horizon, the prospects of the particular virus are shrinking and shrinking and shrinking. at the point where the monkey approaches the brink of movement. it can go extinct upon what the monkey or can make the leap to another host. viruses don't have purposes. i don't want to make it sound to you logical. they don't make choices in evolution is not teleological anyway. things happen and they have consequences. if the monkey is tell them
4:42pm
there's no spillover, the virus is extinct with the monkey. but if the virus gets into the human by chance, by opportunity and it finds itself able to replicate in the human and adapts to humankind meat-eating and undergoing natural selection so it's better and better adapted to the human, both to replicate and be transmitted to the next human, that viruses when the sweepstakes. it has passed from a species of house are shrinking prospects to a species of house that is the most abundant pcs of large vertebrate animal but never existed on this planet. >> are there thousands or millions of viruses that have the potential to that evolve into a dangerous killing virus? and then be transmitted --
4:43pm
>> the safest answer is yes, presumably. we are just scratching into that area. some of the scientists i talked to say we don't do how many species there are and a tropical forests. we know there are millions. we can safely assume each one has a virus for each one. >> okay, we've ran out of questions and we ran out of time. [applause] >> thank you. thank you for questioning. >> yours ithaca works being published this week
4:44pm
4:45pm
>> now, chris andersen contends america is on the verge of a new industrial revolution advances in computing. the other provides a selection of start up industrialists, which he calls makers who are using social media come across cursing and opus for software to redefine american industry manufacturing. this is just over an hour. [applause] >> thank you, eric.
4:46pm
it's very much my honor should be on here if you. thank you for the opportunity. this book came about by accident. i didn't set out to write it. i didn't set out to become part of the movement. it's sort of washed over me, basically an exercise of of parenting gone horribly wrong. i have five children are constantly trying to get an interesting insight and technology. i was think of projects we could do together. i started a site called geek dad, projects on for you and for the kid. i feel constantly at getting them interested. perhaps because i'm trying so hard. one weekend, one friday at the office we got two boxes they came in in the first was a lego
4:47pm
kit that was really cool. the go with sensors like a robot, really good and the other box was a remote control airplane. sunday will fly a plane in the park. this would be the best weekend ever. you can sort of see where this is going. saturday we dutifully put together the robot, this little three wheeled tripod and, you know, you put it together and program. a programming language i thought the kids would love it and we finally get it ready to push the button and it goes forward until it hits the wall and accept. the kids are like, you're kidding. i seen transformers. that's not a robot. i'm like okay, i've ruined robotics for children.
4:48pm
i get it, we would have tomorrow. so go to the park tomorrow and fly a plane. go to the park and that goes right into a tree. and a worst part was when i kind of the tree to retrieve it as much ice cream had to be bought for that disaster. i was thinking about it. i failed once again at being a geek god, filled with again with science and technology. i'm thinking, how can i get better? i had the sensors encompasses a bluetooth. you have phones in your pocket. i'll bet you could actually sort of fly a plane with this. so i got the kids together and they put it in the plane.
4:49pm
it turns out the autopilot starts regulating the state department and can be recognizable by go that day. but what that may be realized is that there's something very exciting going on in what used to be hard to do stuff, electronics and others, others, others, my little discovery in terms of my children got me into the recognition that may be hardwired, maybe physical stuff was something i could do and it was interesting and scary anymore. so i started messing around and learning a little bit and we got a computer board have learned more about sensors and kind of what way down rabbit hole. today i run a chunk from any with a mexican drone factory. i'll say it again, mexican drone in fact true.
4:50pm
five years ago i was the dad messing around at the park with my kids and i would put montrose in the earth and u.s. military. we put montrose in the air every year. not that our predator types that cost a few hundred dollars, but the point is we can do it in that experience, recognizing that they can thereby trying to be a geek dad ends up competing with the aerospace industry using open source hardware and open-source software in readily accessible technology made me realize something is happening. i felt a chill. the last time i thought that show was when i saw the first web browser. when i realized the concept of publishing was not a bus at the concept of putting things on the internet that's not super easy. we'll remember the first moment
4:51pm
when said they would realize something that looks hard, brought down, publishing, communicating have become a simple matter of one click. that moment, that democratization of technology was what had just happened. and then we got a 3-d printer. many of you may be familiar with 3-d printers. they're basically like a two d. printer, which takes pixels on your screen and turns them into atoms. kind of an intellectual an intellectual is trimmer, but that's what it says in terms of digital staff and then you hold it in your hand and all the 3-d printer does is the same thing but with software layers. to build the things that plastic or metal or things like that. once you get at home tend to do
4:52pm
plastics and we got one of my children now grew up with a 3-d printer and i think it's completely normal that anything they imagine they can take in anything they tried to scream a printout and they complain about the resolution and the fact we don't have enough color or that it's slow. but the point is children have 3-d printers. not all children, but that day shall come back to is a democratization moment. so once you've seen this come was to recognize the technology that used to be hard, industrial and expense to is not cheap and easy we've introduced was like desktop and personal. daniela guay, i remember this. i remember what happens when you add words like desktop and personal to technology. it's 1977, humber community club and they just realize that this
4:53pm
little chip you can buy in a store can actually make a computer, a personal computer and they changed the world. i released we had the opportunity right now come the same thing that with computers, but manufacturing. the nice thing about manufacturing is now were talking about moving. we are a world of primarily atoms. the industrial economy is larger. if we should take the innovation model, we can take social forces, you know, the cultural revolution of the web and apply this to the industries of the world. you know, the internet -- it would be just the beginning we could really see what the revolution could do. when you think about the sake of the subtitle of my book is the new industrial revolution.
4:54pm
going to sort of race that is the third industrial revolution. let me explain how this works. the first industrial industrial revolution as all of you know -- here's a quick lesson. how many of you think the first industrial revolution came in the 1700s? nobody. how many think it came in the 1800s? about half. how many people think it came in the 1900s? okay most of the thing to happened in the 1800s. first the answer is nobody has a precise definition, most people start in 1776 around the time the american revolution with the spinning jenny. with spinning wheels all the way back to fairytale time, for the spinning jenny vicious multiple wheels and often had a tribe now -- a tribal rather returns multiple wheels at the same time. what that meant is we basically
4:55pm
have one person to spin multiple threads. batman's people could be more productive you could start back to just niklas herself in france, but set up an industry if you will. and if a power turns into water power, were sparrows fall and am also electric power and beyond. but that basically replaces muscle power and amplifies human capacity. it doubled the life span in the united kingdom in over a hundred years it took the population from sort of three to 5 million to 30 to 50 million. hugely improved quality of life as people moved from the countryside to the city. you may think doctors were dark satanic mills, not happy places, but benefit of the country to the city come you have access to clean water, sanitation, access to education.
4:56pm
the walls were dry. villages were great, but the wasser dampened people didn't live very long. now, it came at a cost of the cost was that fundamentally it is all about mass production, the man who owns the fact very, basically doing what works in a factory scale. all this stuff are here because of this, but this is a cost of which is mass production. it all becomes centralized industrial. that was the first that took us to the spinning jenny already to the steam engine with a hammer for a production line and all that kind of stuff. the first revolution. the second industrial revolution i would argue is the bistro revolution. i didn't say the computer because i don't think it started with herself. the first computers were owned
4:57pm
by the military and by big companies and countries and universities, but that's not a think the revolution. the revolution was 19 in 77 where it was personal to computing. it wasn't a mention of the computer. is that democratization. as putting computing technology in the hands of everybody so her ideas, energy, needs ultimately figured out what the computer was for you. so that was the digital revolution. the maker revolution and modifying in a moment with that is. it's really a combination of the two. it's digital music industrial. it's the kitchen is haitian of the manufacturing technology, but much is introducing visual technology because we've had that for decades. big companies have had that since 1970s. but it is is that
4:58pm
democratization fact, the digital manufacturing tools to anybody and everybody. and that is when we start to see the innovation model, creativity, the energy of everybody start to come to bear on some of the biggest industries in the world. this is the maker movement. there's many different issues. i just want to get you a little about it. i think the credit goes for dale dougherty of o'reilly, a big publishing company. and a 2005, 2006, he recognized something going on in diy. he saw the web generation starting to use their hands more. he saw them working with communities to share ideas a little bit more. digital tools. bigger affairs, which are
4:59pm
usually successful. their son were more than a hundred thousand people come to. the reason new york a couple weekends ago. so the maker movement for something they identified first, is the niche tech publisher. so it's not coincidental, but they're also may be the root and i hope tim o'reilly will forgive me, they're little bit a 60s kind of social change, power to the people. the festival is not san francisco. they have their roots in the country and i think they recognize a cultural revolution under this as well. so is a combination of digital technology and tools allowing people to do extraordinary things about the recognition that people want to use their hands. if you're a cook, your maker. kids are born makers. there is a